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The author dismisses carbon dating tests which concluded that the linen sheet was a medieval fake.
The shroud, which bears the faint image of a blood-covered man, is believed by some to be Christ's burial cloth.
These tests revealed the presence of a chemical called vanillin in the radiocarbon sample and in the Holland cloth, but not the rest of the shroud.
Vanillin is produced by the thermal decomposition of lignin, a chemical compound found in plant material such as flax.
If you ever wondered why nuclear tests are now performed underground, this is why.
Most radiocarbon dating today is done using an accelerator mass spectrometer, an instrument that directly counts the numbers of carbon-14 and carbon-12 in a sample.
The unstable carbon-14 gradually decays to carbon-12 at a steady rate. Scientists measure the ratio of carbon isotopes to be able to estimate how far back in time a biological sample was active or alive.
The 4m-long linen sheet was damaged in several fires since its existence was first recorded in France in , including a church blaze in It is said to have been restored by nuns who patched the holes and stitched the shroud to a reinforcing material known as the Holland cloth.
Levels of vanillin in material such as linen fall over time.
This ruled it out as the possible burial cloth that wrapped the body of Christ.
Aboveground nuclear testing almost doubled the amount of carbon-14 in the atmosphere. The black arrow shows when the Partial Test Ban Treaty was enacted that banned aboveground nuclear tests. A special kind of radiocarbon dating: Bomb radiocarbon dating.
As we mentioned above, the carbon-14 to carbon-12 ratio in the atmosphere remains nearly constant.They have the same ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 as the atmosphere, and this same ratio is then carried up the food chain all the way to apex predators, like sharks.But when gas exchange is stopped, be it in a particular part of the body like in deposits in bones and teeth, or when the entire organism dies, the ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 begins to decrease.Turin shroud 'older than thought' Tests in concluded the cloth was a medieval "hoax" The Shroud of Turin is much older than suggested by radiocarbon dating carried out in the s, according to a new study in a peer-reviewed journal.